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Monthly Archives: September 2014

Public Transport is Dying in Jogja

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This few days, my mother told me that it is harder to get Biskota. For example, the highway near my house, it used to be passed by Jalur 7, but lately rarely passed, if didn’t pass at all anymore. It passed by Transjogja too, but between the bus stops are too far here.

It was just one of the example, and it was relatively easy as my home rather close to the city. In my last post, I suggest the people to maximize the use of public transportation to reduces the consumption of gasoline fuel. But when the reality said that public transport in Jogja cannot accomodates the needs of the people, what I have to say?

My friend who had home in Pakem, close to Merapi Mountain, argued that there is no public transportation up north from Jogja to the foot of Merapi anymore. His family must join that fuel queue to ensure that they could go to work and to school. The extinction of the public transportation happened in the other places in this province as well.

Because of the rapid growth of the economic in Jogja this lately, the number of motorvehicles also multiplied dramatically. It is not uncommon to see many traffic jams on many spots, not only on morning and afternoon rush hours, but nearly all the day long, except for late night and early morning.

The majority of Jogja’s population had shifted and relied on their own motorvehicles. It was seen as one of the sign of prosperity. But the side effect, public transport system that mainly managed by private owners slowly died out, because their passengers disappeared. In the other words, the public transport is dying in Jogja.

But what about the people who reside on the same foot of Merapi, but they cannot afford any motorvehicles, and must go to work in the city, or to the market to sell their agricultural products? They definitely still need public transport to live and to improve their lives.

Businessmen who ran angkot or bus business see public transport as a way to make money. They didn’t ran it for charity. When it didn’t make profit anymore, they shifted to other business too. So, this is the position of the government, to make sure that all the people had a chance to improve their lives. However, the government also didn’t want to ran it when the majority of the people didn’t have any concern about this.

Imagine this, Jogja has been known as a City of Tourism, City of Culture, City of Education since a long time ago. Is it comfortable for the tourist to see motorvehicles everywhere? Merapi Mountain also one of popular tourist destination in Jogja, is it a new culture to rent vehicles as the only way to go there and anywhere around in Jogja? Is it educated when we see traffic jams, and the people who ignorantly keep rang their horns?

I remember, when I still on the junior high school, me and many other students who had home far from school still had Biskota. I remember when there were many students bicycle riding convoys in the morning. The traffic accidents that caused by kids who ride motorcycles were very rare. I remember when I still a child, me and my family went to Kaliurang by legendary Baker bus. The atmospheres was so peaceful and made me missed with those old days.

I’m not refusing development and modernization. We shall look on Japan. It is a modern and developed country. Look at the Japanese way of life, they have cars, but they know that the public transport also important. Their systematic integration of all form of public transport systems made it easier to travel nearly anywhere, so they prefer to take public transport than ride their cars.

Definitely, we still need public transport, for the sake of our city and ourselves. We don’t want Jogja looks the same as the other big cities in Java for their crowded and busy streets, whereas majority of those big cities have better public transport than Jogja. As a native of Jogjakarta, I still want to live comfortably, happily, and peacefully in this city, and other people as well I think. Of course it cannot be done instantly. With a goodwill and some courage and works, I believe that we could make it.

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Sep 25, 2014

Fuel Queue Deception

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Last week we saw a phenomenon in Yogyakarta, a long fuel queue happened in all fuel stations. Some people said that the fuel prices would be raised, some said the gasoline was going to be scarce. There were incidents that stained in some places, like queue grabing. One of the incidents even become a national headline.

I’m not going to talk about the incident. I just want to highlight that the people want to waste their time to do the queue under the hot Sun for hours. As we know, Yogyakarta today has transformed from past time “Kota Sepeda” to a “Kota Sepeda Motor, dan Mobil”. Of course motorcycle could bring you anywhere faster than any mass transport systems that we have here. And of course people don’t consider bicycle a fashionable form of vehicle anymore. But with the queue, it was not fashionable, and it was not saving your time.

But in the time like this, people still could be easily deceived by the cheap rumors. The Governor himself, the Sultan, guaranteed that the fuel supply still adequate until the end of the year. TransJogja and Biskota didn’t affected by the queue because they use Solar diesel fuel, the queue was only on gasoline Premium and Pertamax. Why they don’t think “Owh there is queue on the fuel station, so I will take a bus, or I will use bicycle”. Especially for them who don’t really need motorvehicles to live, like students, civil servants, among others.

The true victims of the queue is the poor people and microbussinesses in places that don’t have close public transport access and too far or too hard to reach, like Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul remote hills. They must share their subsidized fuel quota with officials riding luxurious Camry and students from wealthy family with CBR. It is a big shame.

My take on fuel, still about the same with two years ago, the prices definitely should be raised, but this time slightly different. It is easy to differentiate an expensive and a chep vehicle. Why don’t the government differentiate the fuel prices also for this case? An easy example, the gasoline price for vehicle that made on 2000 downwards, could receive Premium at Rp 7.000. And vehicle that made on 2000 upwards, must buy Pertamax at Rp 15.000. There were already some rhetorics, suggestions, but how about making this to be a clear policy.

And my other sidethoughts also unchanged. Conversion to the more renewable energy should be immediately increased, the subsidy for the true poor (the family who don’t have any home, and couldn’t afford meal three times a day), progressive tax for the rich, and immediately improved public transport. The clear and strict law to the culprit and grafter also must be imposed. The capture of Energy Minister by KPK couple days ago was a good sign.

Well, I’m just a common citizen. Had my opinion in here my Kandangbuaya. In the end I hope everything will be fine, and no more queue.

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Sep 5, 2014

Eksplorasi Migas 101. Part 3 : Drilling

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Setelah data2 terkumpul, dimulailah proses drilling atau pengeboran sumur. Sebelum ngebor, dibikin dulu drilling plan atau drilling schedule, yang intinya berisi seberapa dalam mau ngebor, teknis2 drilling, dan yang paling penting kapan target selesai ngebornya.

Dalamnya sumur yang mau dibor bisa bervariasi antara beberapa ratus meter saja, sampe ribuan meter. Untuk mengebor sumur, digunakan struktur yang namanya drilling rig. Jaman dulu biasanya digunakan kelly rig, yang motor penggerak bor nya berada di bagian bawah struktur rig. Namun sebagian besar udah digantikan sama top drive motor, dimana motor penggerak bornya digantung di bagian atas struktur rig.

Onshore-Rig-1

Buat menurunkan mata bor sampe ribuan meter tadi digunakan drill pipe. Drill pipe ini juga berfungsi untuk mengalirkan drilling fluid yang biasanya berupa lumpur ke dasar sumur. Buat apa pake lumpur? Gampangnya gini, sumur ini dalamnya ribuan meter, kebayang gak kalo dinding sumur yang udah susah payah dibor ini runtuh. Nah lumpur ini berguna buat mengisi volume sumur supaya tanah dan batuan di sekeliling sumur gak runtuh. Itu adalah fungsi utamanya. Fungsi lainnya ada banyak, buat mendinginkan mata bor, buat ngangkat serpihan tanah dan batuan yang udah dibor naik ke permukaan, dll.

Selama ini dibayangkan kalo sumur itu biasanya ya cuma vertikal aja dari atas ke bawah. Nah di dunia oil and gas, gak jarang ditemui kasus dimana harus dibikin sumur directional atau horizontal, alasannya juga macem2. Misalnya dibawah sebuah desa ternyata menurut survei seismik ada kandungan hidrokarbon, masak iya seluruh penduduk desa disuruh pindah demi bisa ngebor disitu. Nah caranya ya bikin sumur yang dimulai dari samping desa yang ada lahan buat ngediriin drilling rig, kemudian dibor directional miring ke bawah desa tadi. Ato bisa juga karena diatas reservoir yang mau dituju ada formasi batuan yang keras banget dan berbahaya buat dibor, makanya dibikin sumur directional biar gak kena batu tadi.

Sejauh ini kayaknya proses drilling adalah tahap proses eksplorasi oil and gas yang paling beresiko dan berbahaya. Banyak barang2 berat yang digunakan, mulai dari struktur drilling rig nya sendiri, motornya, crane buat ngangkat2 barang, dll. Kemudian juga faktor teknis dan faktor alam, misal drilling fluid gagal menjaga well pressure lebih tinggi dari formation pressure, yaudah terjadi blow out. Kasus blow out paling terkenal di Indonesia ya Lapindo itu.

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Sep 4, 2014

Eksplorasi Migas 101. Part 2 : Survei

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Survei merupakan tahap paling awal dalam proses eksplorasi minyak dan gas. Di tahap ini dicari lokasi lapangan yang memiliki potensi hidrokarbon. Tahap ini melihat dari sudut pandang yang lebih luas, yaitu keseluruhan lapangan, ya kalo di Indonesia contohnya keseluruhan lapangan Duri atau Blok Mahakam. Cakupan yang paling luas diperoleh dari satellite image, dimana dilihat perubahan2 pada permukaan bumi. Perubahan pola vegetasi bisa mengindikasikan resapan hidrokarbon di permukaan bumi, atau ada trap structure di bawah permukaan bumi.

Kemudian metode pengukuran magnetik menggunakan magnetometer. Perubahan nilai medan magnet bumi, walaupun sangat kecil, bisa mengindikasikan adanya intrusi batuan vulkanik berkandungan besi yang juga bisa menjadi trap structure. Selanjutnya metode pengukuran gravitasi menggunakan gravimeter. Perubahan nilai gravitasi bumi, sekali lagi walaupun sangat kecil, juga bisa mengindikasikan adanya salt dome yang menjadi trap structure.

Setelah pemetaan lapangan terhadap nilai2 tadi selesai, skala cakupan pengukuran dipersempit, dan dilakukan survei seismik. Ini untuk mengetahui dimana lokasi persis serta di kedalaman berapa hidrokarbon berada. Metode seismik menggunakan sound source berupa airgun yang ditembakkan ke dalam tanah. Suara tadi akan direfleksikan oleh tiap2 lapisan formasi di dalam perut bumi, dan ditangkap oleh alat yang bernama geophone. Prinsip kerjanya mirip2 kayak sensor jarak yang pake ultrasonik lah. Seiring perkembangan teknologi, sekarang bahkan data hasil survei seismik udah bisa diolah jadi mapping 3D.

Diagram_of_a_marine_seismic_survey

Diatas adalah contoh survei seismik di offshore alias di tengah laut. Geophone yang dipakai di survei offshore biasanya dinamai hydrophone. Karena di laut, tentu saja surveinya dilakukan di atas kapal.

Biasanya yang melakukan survei2 awal ini adalah geophysical services kumpeni. Hasil dari survei seismik bisa diolah oleh Reservoir Engineer dari owner kumpeni untuk memperkirakan kandungan hidrokarbon yang ada dan bisa diambil di daerah tersebut. Dan kemudian dianalisis ekonomis gak untuk dilakukan tahapan eksplorasi selanjutnya, yaitu drilling.

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Sep 3, 2014